Vertical centrifuge is a machine widely used in major industries to separate solid particles in a liquid. It rotates a very high speed creating the centrifugal force which causes the particles with higher density to move downwards and accumulate at the base. The movement speed is much higher than it would be under a normal gravitational force.
Vertical decanter centrifuge machine has a base, a rotating tube that is vertical to the base and two vials that at fixed by the centrifuge arms to the rotating tube. The centrifuge arms are fixed on the top of the tube that rotates and hence can move upright at 90. On spinning of the tube, the materials are pulled by the centrifugal force into the vials towards the center.
The inertia of higher density components is also higher so they respond less to the centrifugal force. This lets them outward and the lesser density component are pulled inwards. This process leads to the separation of mixture of different components.
Carl de Laval, a Swedish Engineer had invented the centrifuge in 1883. He used it to isolate the cream from milk. In 1920, Theodor Svedberg, also a Swedish Engineer further worked on Carl de Laval’s experiment and improved upon it. He created the ultracentrifuge that is used to separate the tiny particles of same weight. The vials are not very big in diameter in a ultracentrifuge.
In different industries the centrifuges used are rotated on different ranges between 1000 and 15000 rpm. In some other scientific applications the rotation is on a very high rate that can create a force of more than 25000 times as that of gravity.
The University of Colarado also invented a super-centrifuge. This is used to test effects of explosions on building.
The centrifuge invented by Laval is used for separating the impurities like water from oil, waste water treatment to purify the water.
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