Decanter centrifuge equipment is used to serve the purpose. The equipment uses the centrifugal force to separate different materials for treatment.
Wherever there is a need to separate materials of different densities is involved, There are many types of centrifuges, decanter centrifuges , vertical centrifuge, etc.
Now building on this definition, we can imagine the vast application of such equipment in a variety of industrial scenarios, where different materials need to be separated. Let us pick oilfield drilling industry for an instance, where large volume of drilling waste is produced by the drilling process.
Not only the waste is harmful to the environment, if disposed directly without treatment, but it also contains large quantity of drilling fluid that needs to be extracted and restored. To accomplish this challenging task of separating the fluid, decanter centrifuges are deployed in drilling operations.
The working of a centrifuge could be understood as – If laid down in plain words – it uses the express rotation to separate different types of materials. In a more technical expression, a centrifuge is the equipment that uses the centrifugal force to separate substance based on their density using the principle of sedimentation.
Imagine a jar full of milk cream, when churned at good speed, it separates the cream into butter and skimmed milk. We know that different materials have different density, and the centrifugal force makes them move against the axis of the pit in which they are stored with the help of rapid rotations using mechanical force. Naturally the material with lowest density will make it way upward and the one with highest density will get settled at the bottom of the pit.
The centrifuge equipment is used in a variety of machines that need to filter the mixture of solids and fluids. It finds it application in number of industries ranging from food processing industry to oil and natural gas industry.
Drilling decanter centrifuge is equipment used to separate solids and fluid from a mixture using centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is a force, arising from the body’s inertia.
Drilling Decanter centrifuge technique replaces the conventional method of settling down the solids in the process of water treatment and likes. The technique makes the process faster and improves the quality of the output at the same time.
The drilling waste largely consists of drill cuttings and drilling fluids that are commonly called as drilling mud. Drilling cuttings are nothing but the rock shavings acquired during the borehole drilling process and the drilling mud is a mixture of chemicals that aids the drilling process by keeping the drilling bit cool and lubricated during the process of drilling.
Other than petrochemical industry the Decanter centrifuge has its application in number of other industries as well, e.g. food processing, waste water treatment, fish processing, chemical, mineral processing, organic chemicals, polymer and inorganic chemical industry to name a few.
Due to its wide popularity across different industries, a decanter centrifuge is available in various types and variety of designs. A few notable ones being – vertical orientation, horizontal orientation and conveyer or scroll type. Operators will be using their discretion to choose the appropriate type and design as per the application need, as that remains customizable.
The performance of same design and type of decanter centrifuge may also differ in two industries, as the performance will largely depend upon number of external factors, chief among them will be the type of the waste material they will be treating with. As the guiding principle of a centrifuge is the separation of fluid by buoyancy of the material it works on to separate.
Drilling Decanter Centrifuge operates on the principle of centrifugal force. It is based on separation of material via buoyancy. The centrifugal force is applied for accelerated settling of solids by increasing g-force.
So a lot of components get covered in the working of a decanter centrifuge – g-force, accelerated centrifugal force, viscosity of fluid in which solids are submerged, speed of conveyers, density of different matters, feed rate, etc.
Drilling Decanter Centrifuge applied in solid control system of an oilfield drilling operation would typically be the last phase equipment in the process. The equipment will create high degree centrifugal force in the bowl to separate drilling fluid from the drilling waste .
The centrifugal force created by the centrifuge will contribute in this separation and the solid thus obtained will be carried through a conveyer that’s running at a different speed than the bowl, for further discharge. The g-force applied to the bowl will be anywhere between 1000 Gs to 4000 Gs.
The material to be filtered will be fed to the decanter centrifuge at a certain rate or speed, the bowl in which they are carried, will be set to rotate at a certain rate and inside the bowl, the conveyer will be running at different/slower speed to carry of the solids. The rotations will generate centrifugal force inside the bowl that will force the drilling cutting to settle out and the fluid or mud will be collected in the center of the bowl for discharge.
As we know the actual output will greatly vary depending upon the earlier mentioned aspects, different designs and types will use different dimensions. The size of the decanter or the diameter, rotation per minute, limit of g-force, density of material, rate of feeding the material, and the differential speed of conveyer to carry separated solid for discharge. All of these factors could be manipulated to achieve the desired output from the decanter centrifuge equipment. Another factor is for how long the material was stored or kept inside the bowl.
Decanter centrifuge design is very popular by customer at home and abroad.
A machine which operates on the basis of centrifugal force to separate out different components is called a centrifuge. Centrifugal force is the force experienced by a body when it is rotated at high speed. They are normally used to separate out components of different densities such as water and solids. A decanter centrifuge is a special type of centrifuge that separates out solid components from liquids such as drilling waste.
Decanter centrifuge plays an important part in the process of wastewater treatment, chemical industries and food processors. The performance of a decanter centrifuge depends on several different factors.
Most of the drilling and treatment plants deal with a mixture of components. It is imperative to have them separated out for further treatment. Mainly three types of decanter centrifuges are employed in the industries: horizontal, vertical and conveyor. A decanter centrifuge is essentially a bowl that is rotated at high speeds to separate out solids from liquid base. In case of drilling industry the input is drilling waste.
Centrifuges are quite easy to install and require less maintenance. Even though skilled operators are required to operate them, decanter centrifuges helps in saving a lot of money and increases the overall efficiency of an industry. Centrifuges offer more flexibility and better feedback mechanism. This allows the operators to allow the machine to work at different settings to separate out different components. The space required for setting up the machine is very small and easy to start up or shut down, allowing more than one unit to work at a time.
Decanter centrifuges are also not without its limitations. The machines cause a lot of noise and vibration. It cannot separate biological components and has high energy consumption. The initial cost for setting up the machine is quite high. The rotating parts are also liable to wear and tear over time.