Vertical Centrifuge is very important machine for any oil or gas drillers. It enables them to perform drilling activities in a certain site. So, the operation and maintenance of a decanter centrifuge is a major issue for any drilling companies. In order to get the most of the benefit from a decanter centrifuge , it should be maintained and operated well. Here is a brief discussion about how decanter centrifuges should be operated and maintained.
The operating and maintaining process of a decanter centrifuge: The first thing that should be done to maintain a decanter centrifuge is to replace any hydraulic suction filter and replace hydraulic returns filter. It is a very important step for the oil and gas drillers.
As when the oil or gas drilling goes on both the hydraulic suction filter and the hydraulic returns filter undergo an extensive pressure. So, there is a huge possibility of both of them to be worn out. So in that sense, both of the filters must be checked regularly and be replaced when it is necessary. Another important thing that is required to do in order to maintain a decanter centrifuge is greasing the machine.
It is very important. As decanter centrifuge is basically used in a heavy working areas, the machine can easily be stuck or jammed off. In order to avoid that, greasing is very important. Oil lubricated gear box greasing and recirculating oil greasing are two very effective methods for greasing.
A very significant task for managing decanter centrifuges are adjusting speed sensor to it. It is very important just because adjusting a speed sensor enables drillers to control the differential speed. Beside these above mentioned activities replacing hydraulic motor sensor, bowl belt replacement, scroll belt replacement and regulating the weir plate are some of the steps that should be taken to maintain a decanter centrifuge.
A machine which operates on the basis of centrifugal force to separate out different components is called a centrifuge. Centrifugal force is the force experienced by a body when it is rotated at high speed. They are normally used to separate out components of different densities such as water and solids. A decanter centrifuge is a special type of centrifuge that separates out solid components from liquids such as drilling waste.
Decanter centrifuge plays an important part in the process of wastewater treatment, chemical industries and food processors. The performance of a decanter centrifuge depends on several different factors.
Most of the drilling and treatment plants deal with a mixture of components. It is imperative to have them separated out for further treatment. Mainly three types of decanter centrifuges are employed in the industries: horizontal, vertical and conveyor. A decanter centrifuge is essentially a bowl that is rotated at high speeds to separate out solids from liquid base. In case of drilling industry the input is drilling waste.
Centrifuges are quite easy to install and require less maintenance. Even though skilled operators are required to operate them, decanter centrifuges helps in saving a lot of money and increases the overall efficiency of an industry. Centrifuges offer more flexibility and better feedback mechanism. This allows the operators to allow the machine to work at different settings to separate out different components. The space required for setting up the machine is very small and easy to start up or shut down, allowing more than one unit to work at a time.
Decanter centrifuges are also not without its limitations. The machines cause a lot of noise and vibration. It cannot separate biological components and has high energy consumption. The initial cost for setting up the machine is quite high. The rotating parts are also liable to wear and tear over time.
Now building on this definition, we can imagine the vast application of such equipment in a variety of industrial scenarios, where different materials need to be separated. Let us pick oilfield drilling industry for an instance, where large volume of drilling waste is produced by the drilling process.
Not only the waste is harmful to the environment, if disposed directly without treatment, but it also contains large quantity of drilling fluid that needs to be extracted and restored. To accomplish this challenging task of separating the fluid, decanter centrifuges are deployed in drilling operations.
The working of a centrifuge could be understood as – If laid down in plain words – it uses the express rotation to separate different types of materials. In a more technical expression, a centrifuge is the equipment that uses the centrifugal force to separate substance based on their density using the principle of sedimentation.
Imagine a jar full of milk cream, when churned at good speed, it separates the cream into butter and skimmed milk. We know that different materials have different density, and the centrifugal force makes them move against the axis of the pit in which they are stored with the help of rapid rotations using mechanical force. Naturally the material with lowest density will make it way upward and the one with highest density will get settled at the bottom of the pit.
The decanter centrifuge equipment is used in a variety of machines that need to filter the mixture of solids and fluids. It finds it application in number of industries ranging from food processing industry to oil and natural gas industry.
Vertical centrifuge is a machine widely used in major industries to separate solid particles in a liquid. It rotates a very high speed creating the centrifugal force which causes the particles with higher density to move downwards and accumulate at the base. The movement speed is much higher than it would be under a normal gravitational force.
Vertical decanter centrifuge machine has a base, a rotating tube that is vertical to the base and two vials that at fixed by the centrifuge arms to the rotating tube. The centrifuge arms are fixed on the top of the tube that rotates and hence can move upright at 90. On spinning of the tube, the materials are pulled by the centrifugal force into the vials towards the center.
The inertia of higher density components is also higher so they respond less to the centrifugal force. This lets them outward and the lesser density component are pulled inwards. This process leads to the separation of mixture of different components.
Carl de Laval, a Swedish Engineer had invented the centrifuge in 1883. He used it to isolate the cream from milk. In 1920, Theodor Svedberg, also a Swedish Engineer further worked on Carl de Laval’s experiment and improved upon it. He created the ultracentrifuge that is used to separate the tiny particles of same weight. The vials are not very big in diameter in a ultracentrifuge.
In different industries the centrifuges used are rotated on different ranges between 1000 and 15000 rpm. In some other scientific applications the rotation is on a very high rate that can create a force of more than 25000 times as that of gravity.
The University of Colarado also invented a super-centrifuge. This is used to test effects of explosions on building.
The centrifuge invented by Laval is used for separating the impurities like water from oil, waste water treatment to purify the water.
Decanter centrifuge separates the solid material mixed with some liquids that contaminates the water and converts the mud into sludge. It is an important component utilized in petrochemical, food processing and oil industries. These industries will not be able to function in the absence of Centrifuge. The centrifugal force is created by the decanter centrifuge and creates the centrifugal force by rotation.
Operational & Functional Principles of decanter centrifuge:
• The principle of decanter centrifuge is based on the theory of gravitational separation. A component with high density settles at the bottom and the component with lesser density suspends upwards.
The decanter centrifuges increases the rate at which the component settles increases due to the use of continuous rotation. This force is from 1000 to 4000 times than the normal gravitational force. This method of separation gives fast results.
Example: When a glass is filled with mud and water, after few minutes the mud will settle at the base of the glass due to its weight. Since the mud is settled at the base become solid, the water comes upward that creates a separation between the mud and water mixture.
This method of separation by rotation can be compared to that of rides of amusement parks. In the same way the decanter centrifuges basically a bowl tube rotates at a very high speed. The bowl tube has an internal conveyor that moves at different velocity but in the same direction.
The decanter centrifuge is ideal equipment for treating waste water. There are various industries where these types of machines are vital.
The 2-phase separation method is used for Waste water treatment, sludge de-watering, and also food processing.
The 3-phase separation process separates two liquids like water and oil, which have different densities and cannot be mixed together, are separated. This 3-phase separation produces edible oil, bio-diesel and oil sludge.